One of the main principles we have to discuss is justice. As Abraham was promised we would be an example of justice. So, what is justice really? I have touched upon the subject before, and the thing is; there are many definitions of justice, all the great philosophers of the classic greek age had one, and we are also bound to understand at least Babylon and Egypt to understand a justice definition worthy of Israel.

Now, there are two basic principles we have to take into consideration; the Babylonian and the Egyptian. I have done extensive studies in the field of ancient justice philosophy, and I think there is, at least two profound realizations to be done. Firstly there is the lawstone of Hammurabi. On this it says that the law was made to protect the weak against the strong. Now how may we interpret that. Basically, I believe that Babylonian intellectuals must have had the same realization of justice in nature as the Greeks. After all, the Greeks were highly inspired by both Phoenicia and knew the cities in the fertile crescent quite well.

The greek realization was according to Empedochles and Plato, that in nature, the weak succumb to the strong. We can see it in uncivilized areas without law, here it is the rule of the strong. Often gangs of different kind. We see it in South America in the Favelas, we see it in Europe in the ghettos (immigrant ghettos).

So, basically, law is there to eliminate the stronger subjection of the weaker. This is also the case in tyrannies. Here it is also the rule of the strong that permeates the entire society, leaving the weak at prey of hooligans and thugs.

Now, so this is the first step towards civilization. The next step is an egyptian one. When we were in Egypt, it was, as far as I have concluded in the Middle kingdom. Actually this was the peak of Egyptian civilization. Egyptian literature is, as our, with its stars and classics. One of the classics, is the papyrus called “The eloquent peasant”. In this little story, a poor peasant defends himself in the court against a wealthy landowner, trying to steal his property. The central piece goes like this.

Do truth for the lord of Truth,

the truth of whose Truth is!

O reed, roll, palette of Thoth,

may you avoid doing evil! The goodness of the good man is alone good beyond him.

Yet truth itself is for eternity.

To the necropolis in its doer´s hand it descends;

he is entombed, earth joined with him.

But his name is not effaced on earth;

he is remembered for goodness.

It is the standard of g-ds word.


If it scales, it tilts not;

If a balance, it is not partial.


So speak Truth! Do truth!


For it is mighty, great, enduring;

its revelation shall be found good: it shall conduct to blessedness.

There cannot be excess for the standard.

A vile deed cannot reach port, nor the cargo the cargo bearer.

Now, at a glance it does not make much meaning, but going into a deeper analysis will shed some light on the meaning. Remember, this is a voice contemporary to Moses. So he lived in a culture, where this text was a classic, so it is a text of a tremendous weight in terms of validity to our faith.

What is says is multiple. First it says, that there is a connection between truth and goodness. The truth will unveil the reality, so that we can judge the situation. Because it is, in itself, an objective stance (this is the same basis science is build upon).

The symbol of this is the veiled goddess with wo scales. The idea is, as said in the text, that truth will tell what happened, and, ideally, this will give a verdict that is beyond corruption.

So, just to clarify on this stage. First, we have law to protect the weak against the strong. And when we are in a courtroom, we use truth, and nothing but absolute truth, to judge the accused. This is the (according to the eloquent peasant) the task of the judge, and one would call this aspect a divine aspect, since truth is a connection to spirit.

Now, when it comes to giving the verdict. We have the Pythagorean method, that is the method of five as a middle and zero an ten as counterpoints. If a person do a vile deed at the expense of six they should have a penalty at the expense of four. This is not the reality in most liberal countries, and that is why the Middle eastern sense of justice, that is much more Pythagorean clashes with the western understanding. To make a more precise balance, things should meet in the middle.

Now, we know why we have law, but what are the more loftier aims of the search justice? Now this is where we really must understand the way of spirit. Abraham promised the lord, that he would bring love to mankind. This was a remedy of the corruption of the polis, or the nation. Why? To my understanding, we are, unborn in the direct connection with everything else. When our intelligence is absorbed by the intelligence of G-d, we are all one. This is love, the original state we come from. As we try to recreate the realm of spirit on earth, we should try to create a situation as close to where we came from as possible.

We come from absolute love, and we should try to recreate that on earth. This is the aim of justice. Since life will excel in places where love is, because love is the fertilizer of life, in fact it is the frame of life, we should try to weed out the conflicts that will hinder the possibility of love. And this is the aim, and the basic meter of justice. If you hurt someone in life, it will have the result of reduced love in someone’s life. Take a rape, the rape will result in a reduced love life of the attacked. She cannot attach herself, and will have a life with a lessened chance of love. So this is a heavy criminal act. Violence as well.

I believe the meter we should use, basically, in our discussion of what justice is, is love. It all makes sense, we had the idea from Abraham, who made the covenant with spirit. Why? Because, it wanted us to realize our own spiritual nature.

G-d bless Israel.

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